China is regarded as one of the world's oldest civilizations.   China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to the subtropical forests in the wetter south.   The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia.   The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard.   China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 km (9,000 mi) long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas.   China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia.   It is the world's second-most populous country with a population exceeding 1.4 billion.   China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, tied with Russia as having the most of any country in the world.   With an area of nearly 9.6 million square kilometres (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area.   The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two semi-autonomous special administrative regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and largest financial center is Shanghai.

The region that is now China has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era, with the Yellow River basin being a cradle of civilization.   The sixth to third centuries BCE saw both significant conflict and the emergence of Classical Chinese literature and philosophy. In 221 BCE, China was unified under an emperor, ushering in more than two millennia in which China was governed by one or more imperial dynasties, such as the Han, Tang, Ming and Qing. Some of China's most notable achievements, such as the invention of gunpowder and paper, the establishment of the Silk Road, and the building of the Great Wall, occurred during this period.   The Chinese culture, including languages, traditions, architecture, philosophy and more, has heavily influenced East Asia during this imperial period.

In 1912, the Chinese monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of China established.   The Republic saw consistent conflict for most of the mid-20th century, including a civil war between the Kuomintang government and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which began in 1927, as well as the Second Sino-Japanese War that began in 1937 and continued until 1945, therefore becoming involved in World War II.   The latter led to a temporary stop in the civil war and numerous Japanese atrocities such as the Nanjing Massacre, which continue to influence China-Japan relations.   In 1949, the CCP established control over China as the Kuomintang fled to Taiwan.   Early communist rule saw two major projects: the Great Leap Forward, which resulted in a sharp economic decline and massive famine; and the Cultural Revolution, a movement to purge all non-communist elements of Chinese society that led to mass violence and persecution.   Beginning in 1978, the Chinese government began economic reforms that moved the country away from planned economics, but political reforms were cut short by the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, which ended in a massacre.   Despite the event, the economic reform continued to strengthen the nation's economy in the following decades while raising China's standard of living significantly.

China is a unitary one-party socialist republic led by the CCP. It is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council and a founding member of several multilateral and regional organizations such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the New Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and the RCEP.   It is also a member of the BRICS, the G20, APEC, and the East Asia Summit.   China ranks poorly in measures of democracy, transparency, and human rights, including for press freedom, religious freedom, and ethnic equality.   Making up around one-fifth of the world economy, China is the world's largest economy by GDP at purchasing power parity, the second-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the second-wealthiest country.   The country is one of the fastest-growing major economies and is the world's largest manufacturer and exporter, as well as the second-largest importer.   China is a nuclear-weapon state with the world's largest standing army by military personnel and the second-largest defense budget.

China has been experiencing the largest urbanization process in human history.   China is evolving from villages to megacities.   This trend toward urbanization in China has been underway for four decades.   In 1978, more than 80% of China's population lived in rural areas.   Today, roughly 70% of the population live in China's new megacities.   That translates to roughly 400 million people, more than the entire US population, moving into China’s cities in the past two decades.   The same proportional transition took 90 years to happen in Europe, and 60 years in the US.   This large jump resulted from a combination of factors.   One was the migration of large numbers of surplus agricultural workers, displaced by the agricultural responsibility system, from rural to urban areas.   Urbanization in China greatly accelerated in the 1990s.   During this decade, the percentage of China's population which was urban first reached 50%.   Extensive urban planning efforts made this urbanization process orderly and, unlike other developing countries, China was able to eliminate large scale squatter towns and vilages.   In older urban areas, pre-revolutionary housing and danwei compounds were demolished.

Chinese engineering and technology have developed rapidly since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949.   This growth has been especially dramatic following the adoption of national reform and openness policies nearly 20 years ago.   China has trained a large number of skilled architects, engineers and technicians across a range of disciplines.   These professionals have played a major role in China's growth.   In the last decade, China has constructed the most tall buildings, bridges and railways in the world, and educated the greatest number of engineering students, all of which requires advancement in science, engineering & technology.   From 2010 to 2025, it is estimated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development that 300 million Chinese now living in rural areas will move into cities.   The fast pace of urbanization will create at least one trillion yuan in annual investment opportunities in building water supply, waste treatment, heating and other public utilities in the cities.   The Chinese government is also demolishing rural villages and building new cities and towns to relocate villagers to.   It ultimately aims to integrate about 70% of China's population, about 900 million people, into cities by 2025.

It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the world population.   China now has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, including the 17 megacities as of 2021.   Cities with a population of over 10 million are Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Xi'an, Suzhou, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, Hangzhou, Linyi, Shijiazhuang, Dongguan, Qingdao and Changsha.   Among them, the total permanent population of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing and Chengdu is above 20 million.   Shanghai is China's most populous urban area while Chongqing is its largest city proper, the only city in China with the largest permanent population of over 30 million. By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants.

The birth of the megalopolis.   China’s national urban development policy has shifted from expanding individual cities to systematically building out massive city clusters, each of which will be home to as many as a hundred million people.   Cities in a cluster will collaborate economically, ecologically, and politically.   China has been the fastest growing economy in the world since the 1980.   China is the world's second-largest economy, just behind the United States.   China is famous for several areas of study, including engineering.   In terms of technology and science, China has made advancements and innovations.   China has a high technical expertise ranking, showing that they are one of the most advanced countries in the world.   China's infrastructure and engineering capabilities are evolving very rapidly, to keep pace with the transformation of the country.

Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis (150 million) includes:
Shanghai, Pudong, Nanjing, Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Zhenjiang, Taizhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Zhoushan, Taizhou, Hefei, Wuhu, Ma'anshan, Tongling, Anqing, Chuzhou, Chizhou, Xuancheng.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area (75 million) includes:
Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Hong Kong, Macau.

Jing-Jin-Ji Megalopolis (130 million) includes:
Beijing, Tianjin, Xiong'an, Tangshan, Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Chengde, Cangzhou, Qinhuangdao, Xingtai, Handan, Hengshui.

Shandong Peninsula Megalopolis (28 million) includes:
Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Zibo, Binzhou, Dongying, Tai'an, Weifang, Rizhao, Linyi.

Mid-Southern Liaoning Megalopolis (27 million) includes:
Shenyang, Dalian, Benxi, Liaoyang, Anshan, Yingkou, Pulandian, Gaizhou.

Yangtze River Midstream Megalopolis (121 million) includes:
Wuhan, Huangshi, Ezhou, Huanggang, Xiaogan, Xianning, Xiantao, Qianjiang, Tianmen, Xiangyang, Yichang, Jinzhou, Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Yueyang, Yiyang, Changde, Hengyang, Loudi, Nanchang, Jiujiang, Jingdezhen, Yingtan, Xinyu, Yichun, Pingxiang, Shangrao, Fuzhou, Jian.

Harbin-Changchun Megalopolis (20 million) includes:
Harbin, Daqing, Qiqihar, Suihua, Mudanjiang, Changchun, Jilin, Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.

Chengyu Megalopolis (100 million) includes:
Chongqing, Chengdu, Leshan, Luzhou, Mianyang, Nanchong, Yibin, Meishan, Ziyang, Deyang, Suining, Neijiang, Zigong, Yongchuan, Dazhou, Guang'an.

Central Plain Megalopolis (25 million) includes:
Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Luoyang, Nanyang, Shangqiu, Anyang, Xinxiang, Pingdingshan, Xuchang, Jiaozuo, Zhoukou, Xinyang, Zhumadian, Hebi, Puyang, Luohe, Sanmenxia, Jiyuan, Changzhi, Jincheng, Yuncheng, Xingtai, Handan, Liaocheng, Heze, Huaibei, Bengbu, Suzhou, Fuyang, Bozhou.

Beibu Gulf Megalopolis (92 million) includes:
Nanning, Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Yulin, Chongzuo, Zhanjiang, Maoming, Yangjiang, Haikou, Zhangzhou, Dongfang, Chengmai, Lingao, Changjiang.

Guanzhong Plain Megalopolis (39 million) includes:
Xian, Baoji, Xianyang, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yangling, Shangluo, Yuncheng, Linyi, Tianshui, Pingliang, Qingyang.

Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Megalopolis (12 million) includes:
Hohhot, Baotou, Ordos, Yulin.

Lanzhou-Xining Megalopolis (12 million) includes:
Lanzhou, Baiyin, Dingxi, Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xining, Haidong, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.

China's Top Megacity

Shanghai     29,211,000
Shanghai is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The city is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze River, with the Huangpu River flowing through it. The population of the city proper is the third most populous in the world, with 24.8 million inhabitants, while the urban area is the most populous in China, with 39,300,000 residents. Shanghai is one of the world's major centers for finance, business and economics, research, science and technology, manufacturing, transportation, tourism, and culture, and the Port of Shanghai is the world's busiest container port.

Originally a fishing village and market town, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to both domestic and foreign trade and its favorable port location. The city was one of five treaty ports forced to open to European trade after the First Opium War. The Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession were subsequently established. The city then flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of Asia in the 1930s. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the CCP takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries and the city's global influence declined.

In the 1990s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping a decade earlier resulted in an intense redevelopment of the city, especially the Pudong New Area, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment. The city has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization and the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone, the first free-trade zone in mainland China. Shanghai has been classified as an Alpha+ (global first-tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

As of 2022, it is home to 12 companies of the Fortune Global 500 and is ranked 4th on the Global Financial Centres Index. The city is also a global major center for research and development and home to many highly ranked Double First-Class Universities. The Shanghai Metro, first opened in 1993, is the largest metro network in the world by route length. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of China. Featuring several architectural styles such as Art Deco and shikumen, the city is renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, museums and historic buildings including the City God Temple, Yu Garden, the China Pavilion and buildings along the Bund, which includes Oriental Pearl TV Tower. Shanghai is also known for its sugary cuisine, distinctive local language and vibrant international flair.

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Beijing     21,800,000
Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China. Beijing is the world's most populous national capital city as well as China's second largest city after Shanghai. It is located in Northern China, and is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the State Council with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji megalopolis and the national capital region of China. Beijing is a global city and one of the world's leading centres for culture, diplomacy, politics, finance, business and economics, education, research, language, tourism, media, sport, science and technology and transportation. As a megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai. It is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions by total assets. It is also a major hub for the national highway, expressway, railway, and high-speed rail networks. The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic (Asia's busiest) since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and longest in the world. The Beijing Daxing International Airport, a second international airport in Beijing, is the largest single-structure airport terminal in the world.

Combining both modern and traditional style architectures, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back over three millennia. As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, and was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium CE. With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs, walls and gates. Beijing is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world. In 2018, Beijing was the second highest earning tourist city in the world after Shanghai. Beijing is home to many national monuments and museums and has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites-the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal-all of which are popular tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing.

Beijing's public universities make up more than one-fifth of Double First-Class Universities, and many of them consistently rank among the best in the Asia-Pacific and the world. Beijing is home to the two best C9 League universities (Tsinghua and Peking) in Asia & Oceania region and emerging countries. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is a world leading center of scientific and technological innovation as well as entrepreneurship. Beijing has been ranked the city with the largest scientific research output by the Nature Index since 2016. The city has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable being the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2008 Summer Paralympics Games. In 2022, Beijing became the first city ever to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics, and also the Summer and Winter Paralympics. Beijing hosts 175 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many organizations, including the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Silk Road Fund, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the Central Academy of Fine Arts, the Central Academy of Drama, the Central Conservatory of Music, and the Red Cross Society of China.

Chengdu     21,000,000
Chengdu is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan. It is traditionally the hub of Western China. Chengdu is located in central Sichuan. The surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. The site of Dujiangyan, an ancient irrigation system, is designated as a World Heritage Site. The Jin River flows through the city. Chengdu's culture largely reflects that of its province, Sichuan; in 2011, it was recognized by UNESCO as a city of gastronomy. It is associated with the giant panda, a Chinese national symbol, which inhabits the area of Sichuan; the city is home to the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding.

Founded by the state of Shu, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name mostly unchanged throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras. It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. During World War II, refugees from eastern China fleeing from the Japanese settled in Chengdu. After the war, Chengdu was briefly the capital of the Nationalist republican government until it withdrew to Taipei on the island of Taiwan. Under the PRC, Chengdu's importance as a link between Eastern and Western China expanded, with railways built to Chongqing in 1952, and Kunming and Tibet afterward. In the 1960s, Chengdu became an important defense industry hub. Chengdu is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, and communication centers in China. Its economy is diverse, characterized by the machinery, automobile, medicine, food, and information technology industries. Chengdu is a leading financial hub, ranking 35th globally the 2021 Global Financial Centres Index. Chengdu also hosts many international companies; more than 300 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu.

Chengdu is the third Chinese city with two international airports after Beijing and Shanghai. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, and the newly built Tianfu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines, is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, and the Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu is considered a "Beta + (global second-tier)" city classification (together with Barcelona and Washington, D.C.) according to the GaWC. As of 2023, the city also hosts 23 foreign consulates, making it the fourth major city to host more foreign representatives than any other city in China after Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Chengdu is the seat of the Western Theater Command region of the People's Liberation Army. In 2023, Chengdu became the third Chinese city to host the 31st FISU Summer World University Games, after Beijing 2001 and Shenzhen 2011. It is considered one of the better cities in China to live. Chengdu is one of the world's top 30 cities by scientific research output, and home to the greatest number of universities and research institutes in Southwestern China, notably Sichuan University, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu University of Technology, Sichuan Normal University, and Xihua University.

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Guangzhou     18,700,000
Guangzhou is the capital and largest city of Guangdong province in southern China. Located on the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road. it continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub as well as being one of China's three largest cities. For a long time, the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou was captured by the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major transshipment port. Due to a high urban population and large volumes of port traffic, Guangzhou is classified as a Large-Port Megacity, the largest type of port-city in the world. Due to worldwide travel restrictions at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, the major airport of Guangzhou, briefly became the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic in 2020.

Guangzhou is at the heart of the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area, the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in the world, which extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Shenzhen and part of Jiangmen, Huizhou, Zhuhai and Macau, forming the largest urban agglomeration on Earth with approximately 65,594,000 residents and part of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. Administratively, the city holds subprovincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China.

In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years (2013–2015), Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China. Guangzhou is highly ranked as an Alpha- (global first-tier) city together with San Francisco and Stockholm. It is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 21st globally in the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index. As an important international city, Guangzhou has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable being the 2010 Asian Games, the 2010 Asian Para Games, and the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup. The city hosts 65 foreign representatives, making it the third major city to host more foreign representatives than any other city in China after Beijing and Shanghai. As of 2020, Guangzhou ranks 10th in the world and 5th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen) for the number of billionaire residents by the Hurun Global Rich List.

Guangzhou is a major centre of research and innovation in the Asia-Pacific with a high level of scientific research output, ranking 10th globally, 5th in the Asia-Pacific, and 4th in China, and is home to many of China's most prestigious universities, including Sun Yat-sen University, South China University of Technology, Jinan University, South China Normal University, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou University, Southern Medical University, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Medical University, and Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.

Shenzhen     17,500,000
Shenzhen is a city and special economic zone on the east bank of the Pearl River estuary on the central coast of the southern Chinese province of Guangdong, bordering Hong Kong to the south, Dongguan to the north, and Huizhou to the northeast. Shenzhen is a global center in technology, research, manufacturing, business and economics, finance, tourism and transportation, and the Port of Shenzhen is the world's fourth busiest container port. Shenzhen roughly follows the administrative boundaries of Bao'an County, which was established in imperial times. The southern portion of Bao'an County became part of British Hong Kong after the Opium Wars, while the village of Shenzhen was on the border. Shenzhen railway station was the last stop on the Mainland Chinese section of the Kowloon–Canton Railway, and Shenzhen's economy grew and it became a city by 1979.

In the early 1980s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in the city becoming the first special economic zone of China due to its close proximity to Hong Kong, attracting foreign direct investment and migrants searching for opportunities. In thirty years, the city's economy and population boomed and has since emerged as a hub for technology, international trade, and finance. It is the home to the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization and the Guangdong Free-Trade Zone. Shenzhen is ranked as an Alpha- (global first-tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Its nominal GDP has surpassed those of its neighboring cities of Guangzhou and Hong Kong and is now among those of the cities with the ten largest economies in the world. Shenzhen also has the eighth most competitive and largest financial center in the world, the seventh-most Fortune Global 500 headquarters of any city in the world, fifth-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, the second largest number of skyscrapers of any city in the world, the 28th largest scientific research output of any city in the world, and several notable educational institutions, such as Shenzhen University, Southern University of Science and Technology, and Shenzhen Technology University.

Due to the city being a leading global technology hub, Shenzhen is sometimes called China's Silicon Valley in the media. The city's entrepreneurial, innovative, and competitive-based culture has resulted in the city being home to numerous small-time manufacturers or software companies. Several of these firms became large technology corporations such as phone manufacturer Huawei, holding company Tencent, and drone-maker DJI. As an important international city, Shenzhen hosts numerous national and international events every year, such as the 2011 Summer Universiade and the China Hi-Tech Fair. Shenzhen's rapid success has resulted in the Chinese government turning Shenzhen into a model city for other cities in China to follow.

Chongqing     17,300,000
Chongqing is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Geographically, Chongqing is strategically positioned as a gateway to China's west, a key connection in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and a strategic base for China's Belt and Road Initiative. Administratively, it is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin), and the only such municipality located deep inland. The municipality of Chongqing, roughly the size of Austria or the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, includes the city of Chongqing as well as various discontiguous cities. Due to a classification technicality, Chongqing municipality can claim to be the largest city proper in the world-though it does not have the world's largest urban area. Chongqing is the only city in China with a permanent population of over 30 million, however this number includes a large rural population. Chongqing is the fourth largest Chinese city by urban population. Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality, and also the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, containing 26 districts, eight counties, and four autonomous counties.

During the Republic of China (ROC) era, Chongqing served as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). The current municipality was separated from Sichuan province on 14 March 1997 to help develop the central and western parts of China. Chongqing has an extensive history and a rich culture. As one of China's National Central Cities, it serves as a financial center of the Sichuan Basin and the upstream Yangtze. It is a major manufacturing and transportation center, a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "13 emerging megalopolises". Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport, a major aviation hub serving Chongqing metropolitan areas and Western China, is one of the top 50 busiest airports in the world, and the city's monorail system is the world's longest and busiest monorail system with the greatest number of stations. Chongqing is ranked as a Beta (global second-tier) city.

Chongqing is also the headquarters of the Changan Automobile, one of the "Big Four" car manufacturers of China, and hosts more than 10 foreign consulates, making it the fifth major city to host more foreign representatives than any other city in China after Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu. Chongqing is one of the top 50 cities in the world by scientific research outputs as tracked by the Nature Index, and home to several notable universities, including Chongqing University, Southwest University, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Southwest University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing Normal University, Sichuan International Studies University, Sichuan Fine Arts Institute and Chongqing University of Technology.

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Tianjin     13,900,000
Tianjin, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. As such, it is not part of a province of China. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China. It is governed as one of the four municipalities (alongside Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing) under the direct administration of Chinese central government and is thus under direct administration of the State Council. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in Northern China and part of the Jing-Jin-Ji megapolis.

In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the seventh largest city in China. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China. The walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to Beijing. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and 1976 Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. Tianjin is classified as the largest type of port-city, a Large-Port Megacity, due to its large urban population and port traffic volume.

Nowadays, Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, an adjacent New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of the Bohai Gulf. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan and the city is considered one of the world's top 100 cities, including in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tianjin is ranked as a Beta (global second tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Tianjin is one of the top 20 cities in the world by scientific research outputs as tracked by the Nature Index, and home to multiple notable institutes of higher education in Northern China, including Tianjin University, Nankai University, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin Medical University, Tiangong University, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, and Hebei University of Technology.

Xi'an     12,900,000
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province. A subprovincial city on the Guanzhong Plain, the city is the third most populous city in Western China, after Chongqing and Chengdu, as well as the most populous city in Northwest China. Since the 1980s, as part of the economic growth of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, Xi'an has re-emerged as a cultural, industrial, political and educational center of the entire central-northwest region, with many facilities for research and development. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 11 districts and 2 counties. In 2020, Xi'an was ranked as a Beta- (global second tier) city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, and, according to the country's own ranking, ranked 17th. Xi'an is also one of the world's top 100 financial centers, according to the Global Financial Centres Index. Xi'an is ranked in the top 30 cities in the world by scientific research output as tracked by the Nature Index, and home to multiple prestigious educational institutions in Northwest China, such as Xi'an Jiaotong University, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xidian University and Northwest University.

Known as Chang'an in much of its history, Xi'an is one of the Chinese Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Western Han, Sui, Northern Zhou and Tang. Xi'an is now the second most popular tourist destination in China. The city is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, both of which are listed as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Xi'an is the atonal pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of its name, which means "Western Peace" in Chinese. The apostrophe should be included to distinguish its pronunciation from the single syllable xian. The name was adopted in 1369 under the early Ming dynasty. Jesuit missionaries recorded its name as "Si-ngan" or "Si-ngan-fou" from its status as the seat of a prefecture. This form still appears in the Latin name of the Catholic diocese of Xi'an, archidioecesis Singanensis. The name was later romanized as "Hsi-an" by Wade & Giles and as "Sianfu" or "Sian" by the Qing imperial post office, both of which were common until the general adoption of pinyin.

The area of present-day Xi'an has been the site of several important former Chinese cities. The capital of the Western Zhou were the twin cities of Feng and Hao, known collectively as Fenghao, located on opposite banks of the Feng River at its confluence with the southern bank of the Wei in the western suburbs of present-day Xi'an. The Qin capital Xianyang was erected north of the Wei during the Warring States period and was succeeded by the Western Han capital of Chang'an, meaning "Perpetual Peace", which was located south of the Wei and covered the central area of present-day Xi'an. During the Eastern Han, Chang'an was also known as the "Western Capital", named for its namesake position relative to the main capital at Luoyang. Under the Sui, its name became Daxing, "Greatly Prosperous") in AD 581. Under the Tang, the name reverted to Chang'an in 618. Under the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty (13th & 14th centuries), it held a succession of names: Fengyuan, Anxi, "Peaceful West" and Jingzhao. The Ming name "Xi'an" was changed back to Xijing ("Western Capital", as above) between 1930 and 1943.

Hangzhou     11,900,000
Hangzhou is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, China. It is located in the northwestern part of the province, sitting at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of China's most renowned and prosperous cities for much of the last millennium. It is a major economic and e-commerce hub within China, and the second biggest city in Yangtze Delta after Shanghai. Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China after Guangzhou-Shenzhen Pearl River agglomeration, Shanghai-Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou conurbation and Beijing. As of 2019, the Hangzhou metropolitan area was estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (nominal) of 3.2 trillion yuan ($486.53 billion), making it larger than the economy of Nigeria (the largest in Africa).

Hangzhou has been repeatedly rated as the best commercial city in mainland China by Forbes and the Chinese city with the highest growth potential by the Economist Intelligence Unit. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation ranked Hangzhou first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". According to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), the city is classified as Beta (global second-tier) city, together with Chongqing, Nanjing and Tianjin in China. Hangzhou is also one of the world's top 100 financial centers, according to the Global Financial Centres Index. It boasts the eighth largest GDP among cities in mainland China with a GDP of around 1.8 trillion RMB ($280 billion). Home to the headquarters of large global tech companies such as the Alibaba Group, Ant Group and NetEase, Hangzhou is known for attracting professionals and entrepreneurs who work in information technology. As of August 2023, Hangzhou has the tenth-most Fortune Global 500 headquarters of any city in the world and the fourth-most in China-after Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen-within its city limits. According to the 2020 Hurun Global Rich List, Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou) in the number of resident billionaires.

Hangzhou is a major city for scientific research in the Asia-Pacific, ranking 19th globally by scientific outputs. It hosts several notable universities, including Zhejiang, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou Normal, Hangzhou Dianzi, Zhejiang A&F, Zhejiang Sci-Tech, Zhejiang Chinese Medical, Westlake, China Jiliang and Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics. Its West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. It will be the third Chinese city to host the 2022 Asian Games, after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. Hangzhou also hosted the 11th G20 summit in 2016.

Baoding     11,200,000
Baoding, formerly known as Baozhou and Qingyuan, is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) southwest of Beijing. Zhuozhou City in the northern part has now grown into part of the Beijing built-up (metro) area. Baoding is a city with a history dating back to the Western Han Dynasty. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th century, but after the Mongols established the Yuan Dynasty, it was rebuilt. It acquired the name "Baoding" during the Yuan dynasty. the name is roughly interpreted as "protecting the capital", referring to the city's proximity to Beijing. Baoding served for many years as the capital of Zhili and was a significant centre of culture in the Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty. During the Boxer Rebellion, Boxer rebels killed a Turk, two Swiss, and an Italian in Baoding.

On 1 August 1949, the People's Government of Hebei province was established, Baoding was the capital of the province, and the city of Baoding was a provincial municipality. On 9 August, the administrative inspector's office of the Baoding district was established, and it was established as the administrative inspector's office of the county district. In May 1958, the capital of Hebei was moved to Tianjin. In January 1966, the provincial capital was moved from Tianjin to Baoding. In February 1968, the provincial capital moved to Shijiazhuang. In December 1994, the Baoding area merged with Baoding to become a provincial city. In April 2017, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council announced the decision to transform Baoding's Xiong, Rongcheng, and Anxin counties into Xiong'an New Area, a new development area of national significance, with a focus on innovation, sustainability and quality of life, following the success of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone and Shanghai's Pudong New Area.

Linyi     11,100,000
Linyi is a prefecture-level city in the south of Shandong province, China. As of 2011, Linyi is the largest prefecture-level city in Shandong, both by area and population, Linyi borders Rizhao to the east, Weifang to the northeast, Zibo to the north, Tai'an to the northwest, Jining to the west, Zaozhuang to the southwest, and the province of Jiangsu to the south. The name of the city Linyi literally means "close to the Yi River". The city recently expanded along the Yi River to Nanfang, now called the Beicheng New Area, under the slogan "Grand Linyi, Beautiful Linyi, New Linyi". Multiple recreational parks were built, along with new school campuses etc. The development is a consequence of a series of governmental projects, including relocate the city government, which is expected to stimulate the economy.

Dongguan     10,646,000
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. An important industrial city in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It is part of the Pearl River Delta built-up metro area with more than 65.57 million inhabitants as of the 2020 census spread over nine municipalities across an area of 19,870 square kilometres (7,670 sq mi).

Dongguan's city administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. Dongguan ranks behind only Shenzhen, Shanghai and Suzhou in exports among Chinese cities, with $65.54 billion in shipments. It is also home to one of the world's largest shopping malls, the New South China Mall, which is seeing increased activity. Although the city is geographically and thus culturally Cantonese in the Weitou form and as well as culturally Hakka in the prefectures of Fenggang and Qingxi, the majority of the modern-day population speaks Mandarin due to the large influx of economic migrants from other parts of China. The city is home to several universities, including Guangdong University of Science and Technology, Guangdong Medical University and Dongguan University of Technology.

Wuhan     10,200,000
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China. It is the largest city in Hubei and the most populous city in Central China. The name "Wuhan" came from the city's historical origin from the conglomeration of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, which are collectively known as the "Three Towns of Wuhan". Wuhan lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain, at the confluence of the Yangtze river and its largest tributary, the Han River, and is known as "Nine Provinces' Thoroughfare".

Wuhan has historically served as a busy city port for commerce and trading. Other historical events taking place in Wuhan include the Wuchang Uprising of 1911, which led to the end of 2,000 years of dynastic rule. Wuhan was briefly the capital of China in 1927 under the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT) government. The city later served as the wartime capital of China for ten months in 1937 during WWII. Wuhan is considered the political, economic, financial, commercial, cultural, and educational center of Central China. It is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads, and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities. Because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan is sometimes referred to as "the Chicago of China" by foreign sources. The "Golden Waterway" of the Yangtze River and the Han River traverse the urban area and divide Wuhan into the three districts of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang. The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge crosses the Yangtze in the city. The Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity, is located nearby. Historically, Wuhan has suffered risks of flooding, prompting the government to alleviate the situation by introducing ecologically friendly absorption mechanisms.

While Wuhan has been a traditional manufacturing hub for decades, it is also one of the areas promoting modern industrial changes in China. Wuhan has three national development zones, four scientific and technological development parks, over 350 research institutes, 1,656 high tech enterprises, numerous enterprise incubators and investments from 230 Fortune Global 500 firms. It produced GDP of US$274 billion in 2021. The Dongfeng Motor Corporation, an automobile manufacturer, is headquartered in Wuhan. The city is home to multiple notable institutes of higher education, including Wuhan University and the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Wuhan is a major city in the world by scientific research outputs and it ranks 11th globally, 6th in the Asia-Pacific and 5th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Guangzhou). In 2017, Wuhan was designated as a Creative City by UNESCO, in the field of design. Wuhan is classified as a Beta- (global second tier) city together with seven other cities in China, including Changsha, Dalian, Jinan, Shenyang, Xiamen, Xi'an and Zhengzhou by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Wuhan is also one of the world's top 100 financial centers, according to the Global Financial Centres Index. On December 31, 2019, SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus that later caused the COVID-19 pandemic, was first discovered in Wuhan and the city was the location of the first lockdown of the pandemic in January 2020.

Nanyang     10,013,600
Nanyang is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Henan province, China. The city with the largest administrative area in Henan, Nanyang borders Xinyang to the southeast, Zhumadian to the east, Pingdingshan to the northeast, Luoyang to the north, Sanmenxia to the northwest, the province of Shaanxi to the west, and the province of Hubei to the south. Dinosaur egg fossils have been discovered in the Nanyang Basin. The 35,000 capacity Nanyang Sports Centre Stadium is the main (football) venue in the city. In the name "Nanyang", Nan means south, and Yang means sun-the south side of a mountain, or the north side of a river, in Chinese is called Yang. The name came from Nanyang Commandery, a commandery established in the region during the Warring States period. Before the name "Nanyang" became associated with the city itself, it was referred to as "Wan".

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Foshan     9,499,000
Foshan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848 km2 (1,486 sq mi). The city is part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone whose built-up metro area was home to 65,694,000 inhabitants as of 2020 (excluding Hong Kong not conurbated yet), making it the biggest urban area of the world. Fohan is regarded as the home of Cantonese opera, a genre of Chinese opera; Nanquan, a martial art; and lion dancing. "Faesan" (Foshan), from Johan Nieuhof's 1665 Embassy of the Dutch East India Company to the Emperor of China. The Postal Map spelling "Fatshan" derives from the same name's local Cantonese pronunciation. Other romanizations include Fat-shan and Fat-shun. Foshan means "Buddha Mountain" and, despite the more famous present-day statue of Guanyin (or Kwanyin) on Mount Xiqiao, who isn't a Buddha, it refers to a smaller hill near the centre of town where three bronze sculptures of Buddha were discovered in AD 628. The town grew up around a monastery founded nearby that was destroyed in 1391.

Tangshan     9,084,000
Tangshan is a coastal, industrial prefecture-level city in the northeast of Hebei province. It is located in the eastern part of Hebei Province and the northeastern part of the North China Plain. It is located in the central area of the Bohai Rim and serves as the main traffic corridor to the Northeast. The city faces the Bohai Sea in the south, the Yan Mountains in the north, Qinhuangdao across the Luan River to the east, and Tianjin to the west. Much of the city's development is thanks to the industrialization, beginning in 1870, when Kailuan Group established coal mines in the region. It's the birthplace of China's first standard-gauge railway, the first railway plant, the first steam locomotive, and the first cement factory. It was hailed as China's "cradle of industrialization". Even today, Tangshan is a hub of steel, energy, chemical, and ceramics production. Ping opera, which originated from the city's Luanzhou county, is one of the five most popular Chinese operas.

The city has also become known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake which measured 7.8 on the Richter scale, flattened much of the city, and killed at least 255,000 residents according to official estimates. The city has since been rebuilt, has become a tourist attraction, and is among the 10 largest ports in China. The city of Tangshan is approximately 149 km (93 mi) east by south east of Beijing. It takes roughly 2 hours by road to get from Tangshan to Beijing and 1 hour by road to reach Tianjin.

Zhoukou     9,026,000
Zhoukou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, China. It borders Zhumadian to the southwest, Xuchang and Luohe to the west, Kaifeng to the northwest, Shangqiu to the northeast, and the province of Anhui on all other sides.

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Ganzhou     8,970,000
Alternately romanized as Kanchow, is a prefecture-level city in the south of Jiangxi province, China, bordering Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, and Hunan to the west. Its administrative seat is at Zhanggong District.

Heze     8,796,000
Formerly known as Caozhou, is the westernmost prefecture-level city in Shandong province, China, it borders Jining to the east and the provinces of Henan and Anhui to the west and south respectively.

Quanzhou     8,782,000
Alternatively known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level port city on the north bank of the Jin River, beside the Taiwan Strait in southern Fujian, China. It is Fujian's largest most populous metropolitan region,

Nanjing     8,422,000
Capital of China’s eastern Jiangsu province, is roughly 300km up the Yangtze River from the city of Shanghai. It was the national capital during part of the Ming dynasty. Many monuments and landmarks remain, including Zhonghua Gate (Gate of China), a preserved 14th-century section of the massive wall that contained the old city’s southern entrance.

Jining     8,358,000
Jining is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong province. It borders Heze to the southwest, Zaozhuang to the southeast, Tai'an to the northeast, and the provinces of Henan and Jiangsu to the northwest and south respectively.

Fuyang     8,200,000
A prefecture-level city in northwestern Anhui province, China. It is bordered by Henan province to the west and the cities of Bozhou to the northeast, Huainan to the southeast, and Lu'an to the south.

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Shenyang     7,964,000
Shenyang, formerly known as Fengtian is a major Chinese sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Liaoning province, in north-central Liaoning. It is the province's most populous city. It is also the largest city in Northeast China by urban population. Shenyang is the central city of one of the major megalopolises in China, the Greater Shenyang Metropolitan Area, with a population over 23 million. The city's administrative region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties: Kangping and Faku.

Shenyang has passed through the control of many states and peoples in history. In the 14th century, Shenyang came under the control of the Ming dynasty. The city served as an important Chinese military stronghold during the Ming period. The Manchu people conquered Shenyang from the Ming in the 17th century and briefly used it as the capital of Qing dynasty China. In 1905, the Battle of Mukden took place south of Shenyang during the Russo-Japanese War. Japan's subsequent victory allowed Tokyo to annex the region west of the old city and to increase Japanese influence on Shenyang; in 1931, the Mukden Incident led the Japanese to further invade and occupy the rest of Northeast China, forming the puppet state of Manchukuo. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold, but the Communists captured it in 1948 after the Liaoshen Campaign.

Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial center in China, and serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China's northeast, particularly involved in links with Japan, Russia and Korea. A center of heavy industry in China since the 1930s, and the spearhead of the Chinese central government's Northeast Area Revitalization Plan, the city has been diversifying its industry, including expanding into the service sector. Growing industries include software, automotive and electronics. Shenyang is also a major city for scientific research, appearing among the top 200 science cities in the world as tracked by the Nature Index. The city is home to several major universities, notably Northeastern University and Liaoning University, members of China's prestigious universities in the Double First Class University Plan.

Shangqiu     7,817,000
Shangqiu is a city in eastern Henan province, Central China. It borders Kaifeng to the northwest, Zhoukou to the southwest, and the provinces of Shandong and Anhui to the northeast and southeast respectively. Its population lived in the built-up metro area made up of two urban districts (Liangyuan and Suiyang) and Yucheng county now being conurbated. Shangqiu and surrounding area was an important base for the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC), and the city itself was established more than three millennia ago. Shangqiu has grown significantly in recent years. It is located at an important location at the junction of several major railways, making it a major regional transportation hub.

Cangzhou     7,544,000
Cangzhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. Cangzhou's built-up metro area made of Yunhe, Xinhua districts and Cang County largely being conurbated. It lies approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) from the major port city of Tianjin, and 180 km (110 mi) from Beijing.

Hong Kong (SAR)     7,400,000
Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is a city and a special administrative region in China. Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated territories in the world. Hong Kong was established as a colony of the British Empire after the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island in 1841–1842. The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and was further extended when the United Kingdom obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. Hong Kong was briefly occupied by Japan from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. The whole territory was transferred from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems".

Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory is now one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports. Hong Kong is the world's fourth-ranked global financial centre, ninth-largest exporter, and eighth-largest importer. Its currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world. Home to the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, Hong Kong has the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, severe income inequality exists among the population. Despite having the largest number of skyscrapers of any city in the world, housing in Hong Kong has been well-documented to experience a chronic persistent shortage. Hong Kong is a highly developed territory and has a Human Development Index, ranking fourth in the world. The city has the second highest life expectancy in the world, and a public transport rate exceeding 90%.

Shaoyang     7,370,000
Shaoyang, formerly named Baoqing (Paoking), is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Hunan province, China, bordering Guangxi to the south. It has a history of 2500 years and remains an important commercial and transportation city in Hunan. One of the major forest areas in Hunan, Shaoyang has a forest coverage of 42.7%. The 23,000,000-acre (93,000 km2) NanShan Pastures is one of the biggest in South Central China and provide dairy products and meat for Hunanese. Shaoyang is home to Shaoyang University. The school is composed of the former Shaoyang Normal College and Shaoyang College. The Shaoyang dialect of Lou Shao group of dialects of Xiang is generally spoken here.

Zhanjiang     7,332,000
Zhanjiang, historically spelled Tsamkong, is a city in Guangdong province, People's Republic of China. The prefecture-level city of Zhanjiang administers the whole of Leizhou Peninsula, facing Haikou city of Hainan across the Qiongzhou Strait. the city was named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.

Yancheng     7,260,000
Yancheng is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. As the city with the largest jurisdictional area in Jiangsu, Yancheng borders Lianyungang to the north, Huai'an to the west, Yangzhou and Taizhou to the southwest, Nantong to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the east. Formerly a county, the current Yancheng city was founded on 18 January 1983. Yancheng, literally "Salt City", is named after the salt harvest fields surrounding the city. According to historical records, collection and production of sea salt in the region began as early as 119 BC, during the Western Han Dynasty, when the settlement on the current location of Yancheng was named Yandu County.

Hengyang     7,243,400
Hengyang is the second largest city of Hunan Province, China. It straddles the Xiang River about 160 km (99 mi) south of the provincial capital of Changsha. Hengyang is home to University of South China, Hengyang Normal University, and Hunan Institute of Technology, three major provincial public universities in the city.

Zhumadian     7,231,000
Zhumadian is a prefecture-level city in southern Henan province, China. It borders Xinyang to the south, Nanyang to the west, Pingdingshan to the northwest, Luohe to the north, Zhoukou to the northeast, and the province of Anhui to the east. It was once the center of the Cai state during the Eastern Zhou era. The state leaves its name in several of the subdivisions including Shangcai County and Xincai County.

Xingtai     7,111,000
Xingtai, formerly known as Xingzhou and Shunde, is a prefecture-level city in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of 12,486 km2 (4,821 sq mi) and administers 4 districts, 2 county-level cities and 12 counties. It borders Shijiazhuang and Hengshui in the north, Handan in the south, and the provinces of Shandong and Shanxi in the east and west respectively.

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Bijie     6,900,000

Shangrao     6,811,000

Zunyi     6,607,000

Huanggang     6,333,000

Maoming     6,313,000

Nanchong     6,279,000

Xinyang     6,234,000

Qujing     6,155,000

Jieyang     6,089,000

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Liaocheng     5,952,000

Dalian     5,871,000

Yulin     5,849,000

Changde     5,827,000

Qingdao     5,818,000

Pudong     5,681,000

Xiangyang     5,680,000

Zhengzhou     5,622,000

Luan     5,612,000

Dezhou     5,611,000

Jinan     5,606,000

Zhaotong     5,591,000

Yichun     5,573,000

Taian     5,494,000

Dazhou     5,468,000

Langfang     5,464,000

Yongzhou     5,452,000

Suihua     5,418,000

Qiqihar     5,367,000

Suzhou     5,353,000

Weinan     5,286,000

Zhangzhou     5,140,000

Yuncheng     5,135,000

Xianyang     5,096,000

Guilin     5,085,000

Taizhou     5,031,000

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Bozhou     4,996,800

Suqian     4,986,100

Huaihua     4,979,600

Jian     4,956,600

Xiaoganzhan     4,921,000

Pingdingshan     4,904,700

Jiujiang     4,896,800

Mianyang     4,868,200

Huanglongsi     4,824,000

Changsha     4,766,200

Chenzhou     4,744,500

Anqing     4,723,000

Jiangmen     4,630,300

Xinpu     4,599,300

Yibin     4,588,800

Yangzhou     4,559,700

Hengshui     4,472,000

Kunming     4,423,000

Yiyang     4,413,800

Guigang     4,409,200

Changchun     4,408,000

Jiangguanchi     4,379,900

Meizhou     4,378,800

Zhangjiakou     4,345,500

Chifeng     4,341,300

Urumqi     4,335,100

Linfen     4,316,600

Shantou     4,312,100

Luzhou     4,218,400

Hefei     4,216,900

Liuzhou     4,157,900

Zhaoqing     4,151,700

Xiaoxita     4,137,900

Shijiazhuang     4,098,200

Ningbo     4,087,500

Fuzhou     4,047,200

Zhuzhou     4,020,800

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Chuzhou     3,987,000

Qingyuan     3,969,400

Loudi     3,931,800

Binzhou     3,928,500

Deyang     3,877,000

Taiyuan     3,875,000

Wuhu     3,842,100

Nanning     3,837,900

Harbin     3,830,000

Baojishi     3,738,700

Zaozhuang     3,729,100

Xiamen     3,707,000

Neijiang     3,702,800

Baicheng     3,669,400

Anshan     3,645,800

Yulinshi     3,634,700

Wenzhou     3,604,400

Changzhou     3,601,000

Puyang     3,598,740

Jiaozuo     3,590,700

Nanchang     3,576,500

Hechi     3,545,700

Hohhot     3,446,100

Hanzhong     3,416,100

Tangshan     3,399,200

Shiyan     3,398,000

Siping     3,385,100

Changzhi     3,334,500

Qinzhou     3,304,400

Guiyang     3,299,700

Bengbu     3,296,400

Bazhou     3,283,100

Qincheng     3,262,500

Suining     3,252,600

Wuxi     3,245,100

Leshan     3,235,700

Putian     3,210,700

Zhenjiang     3,210,400

Guangan     3,205,400

Tongren     3,168,800

Qinhuangdao     3,146,300

Tongliao     3,139,100

Jinzhou     3,126,400

Heyuan     3,093,900

Xinzhou     3,067,500

Lanzhou     3,067,100

Wuzhou     3,061,100

Chaoyang     3,044,000

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Shaoguan     2,997,600

Shanwei     2,993,600

Rizhao     2,968,300

Meishan     2,950,500

Ningde     2,910,000

Zhongshan     2,909,600

Weihai     2,906,500

Daqing     2,904,500

Haikou     2,873,300

Xiangtan     2,864,800

Mudanjiang     2,798,700

Longyan     2,723,600

Tieling     2,717,700

Baotou     2,709,300

Handan     2,708,000

Cawnpore     2,701,300

Dingxi     2,698,600

Nanping     2,690,000

Zigong     2,678,800

Chaozhou     2,656,600

Weifang     2,636,100

Huaian     2,632,700

Zibo     2,631,600

Ankang     2,629,900

Baoshan     2,627,000

Huludao     2,623,500

Gulou     2,606,000

Yanjiang     2,593,800

Sanming     2,580,000

Longba     2,567,700

Yangjiang     2,555,600

Jiamusi     2,552,000

Luohe     2,544,200

Lincang     2,536,000

Xuanzhou     2,532,900

Yunfu     2,526,900

Shaoxing     2,521,900

Yantai     2,511,000

Huizhou     2,509,200

Lishui     2,507,300

Guangyuan     2,484,100

Huangshi     2,471,700

Xining     2,467,900

Dandong     2,444,600

Zhuhai     2,439,500

Yingkou     2,428,500

Lianshan     2,426,000

Jilin     2,396,000

Yuxi     2,386,000

Luoyang     2,372,500

Anshun     2,353,100

Shangzhou     2,341,700

Huainan     2,333,800

Kuaidamao     2,324,400

Yanan     2,282,500

Jincheng     2,279,100

Nantong     2,261,300

Sanmenxia     2,234,000

Laibin     2,233,900

Qinbaling     2,211,100

Maanshan     2,202,800

Shengli     2,193,500

Gaoping     2,174,000

Taizhou     2,162,400

Puning     2,118,200

Huaibei     2,114,200

Qingyang     2,111,000

Chongzuo     2,099,400

Yushan     2,092,400

Hezhou     2,072,600

Pingliang     2,068,000

Baicheng     2,032,300

Fushun     2,024,000

The populatiom numbers below are from 2023, and they are changing rapidly.

Pingxiang     1,933,200

Yinchuan     1,901,700

Xiping     1,873,000

Jixi     1,862,100

Liaoyang     1,858,700

Beihai     1,853,200

Fuxin     1,819,300

Wuwei     1,815,000

Shuyangzha     1,770,000

Shuozhou     1,714,800

Benxi     1,709,500

Baiyin     1,708,700

Sanzhou     1,680,000

Changshu     1,677,000

Heihe     1,673,800

Jingdezhen     1,673,200

Chengtangcun     1,603,600

Hebi     1,569,200

Huzhou     1,558,800

Zhangjiajie     1,537,900

Jiaxing     1,518,600

Guiping     1,511,000

Lianjiang     1,509,400

Ximeicun     1,508,000

Jianguang     1,507,400

Yucheng     1,507,200

Xushan     1,502,000

Leizhou     1,494,700

Huazhou     1,468,000

Jinhua     1,463,900

Shuangyashan     1,462,600

Pizhou     1,458,000

Yangshe     1,432,000

Guyuan     1,426,000

Ruian     1,424,600

Wenling     1,416,100

Gaozhou     1,414,100

Chizhou     1,402,500

Fuqing     1,390,400

Wuzhong     1,382,700

Pingdu     1,378,900

Yangquan     1,368,500

Yutan     1,368,100

Huangshan     1,358,900

Liangshi     1,335,900

Xintai     1,315,900

Wusong     1,311,700

Yushu     1,304,400

Rongcheng     1,302,800

Huazhou     1,302,100

Baishan     1,296,100

Dayan     1,296,000

Haicheng     1,293,800

Jiangyin     1,285,700

Yicheng     1,285,700

Rucheng     1,267,000

Huaiyin     1,264,000

Shaoyang     1,253,500

Laiwu     1,248,600

Jingling     1,247,400

Yongcheng     1,240,300

Yiwu     1,234,000

Beidao     1,225,000

Xiangshui     1,221,000

Dadukou     1,214,100

Lingcheng     1,211,600

Xinyu     1,202,400

Zhangye     1,199,500

Liaoyuan     1,176,200

Yingtan     1,175,000

Guankou     1,168,000

Dingzhou     1,165,100

Lianyuan     1,162,900

Rongcheng     1,162,700

Kaiyuan     1,160,000

Zhuji     1,157,900

Leiyang     1,151,500

Yichun     1,148,100

Xiantao     1,140,100

Yingchuan     1,131,800

Xibeijie     1,095,900

Yuyao     1,095,000

Hanchuan     1,092,700

Gongzhuling     1,092,600

Zhufeng     1,081,900

Ezhou     1,079,300

Xiashi     1,076,100

Taixing     1,073,900

Zhongwei     1,067,300

Mizhou     1,060,000

Xishan     1,060,000

Hegang     1,058,600

Fangchenggang     1,046,000

Shouguang     1,039,200

Sanya     1,031,300

Wutong     1,029,700

Linhai     1,028,800

Wafangdian     1,024,800

Zhongxiang     1,022,500

Xinyi     1,013,900

Zaoyang     1,004,700

Xingyi     1,004,100

Shuizhai     1,003,600